facebook advertising print screen

Facebook is not just extremely famous for is social networking capabilities but for its impact in the advertising world. In 2006 Facebook brought in 10.6 million in revenue alone. Facebook ads for specific areas are placed on specific peoples pages that have the targeted characteristics such as age, gender, location, favourite activities, music and so on. What is displayed on your facebook page is catered specifically to what information you have supplied about yourself.

If Facebook were a country it would be the 3rd largest making it a perfect scenario for businesses to advertise their product or service with an extremely large audience.

Facebook as revolutionized the way in which advertisers can deal with their target consumers.


Along with Web 2.0 came online shopping. What began as a few things being sold online here and there has become an international phenomenon and has caused a change in the way that we deal with our everyday lives. With online shopping available for supermarkets, clothing stores and to simply sell our unwanted belongings, people are beginning to stop venturing out into the retail world and are reclining at home and purchasing items at from the ‘safety’ of their own computer.

Mia Freedman explores the concept of online shopping and what it means for her. She claims its easier for her as her life demands have increased leaving her with little time to do that ‘retail therapy’ that she used to love. Unfortunately online shopping has its disadvantages such as buying the wrong size, having to pay for the return sending of the product if you do not like it, not knowing when the product will turn up at your doorstep, having the possibility that your credit card details will be stolen and for Freedman, not being able to smuggle her new clothes in without her husband noticing.


Fashion Blogs have become a very popular hobby both for the producer of the blog and for the reader of the blog. Particularly in Sweden, Fashion Blogs for females have grown exponentially and caused continuous controversy. There seems to be two types of fashion blogs that Swedish girls become involved with: lifestyle fashion bloggers and the ‘real’ fashion bloggers.

The ‘real’ fashion bloggers are ordinary girls who have decided to promote their love for fashion, designing fashion and wearing fashion on a blog. Most of the blogs are pictures of themselves in outfits, or showing them going about their daily activities. Swedish fashion blogs have gained enormous popularity not just in Sweden but internationally. Popular bloggers get paid to blog and some have often made a career out of it.

Examples of ‘real’ fashion bloggers are Elin Kling, Victoria TornegrenandMy Blomquist

Victoria Tornegren

Although they do promote fashion ideals for girls and are all beautiful and trendy, these bloggers argue that they blog about their passion for fashion and not to promote an unhealthy beauty filled lifestyle.

Other fashion blogs are more controversial. They are labeled ‘lifestyle’ blogs and are more known to promote an unhealthy, superficial lifestyle. These girls don’t exactly blog about fashion but more about their glamerous lifestyle of parties, premiers, shopping dieting and often having plastic surgery.

A perfect example of this type of blog is of Kissies. Kissies is known for promoting ‘sick’ ideals due to her blogs about her breast augmentation, dieting and lip surgery. Her blog is more about these aspects of life than of fashion and are known to cause issues especially amongst the teenage population. Her blog gets millions of views a week.

Kissies Blog Homepage

There is a debate going on that revolves around whether the blogs are harmful or whether the bloggers deserve to promote their interests as women.

Do you think these fashion blogs are harmful or deserve a piece of attention on Web 2.0?



orginial lolcat

One example of a entertainment blog that has grown exponentially from a simple silly idea is that of I can has cheezburger.com. The blog was created by Eric Nakagawa who expanded the concept of Lolcats: pictures of cats doing funny things with quotations. It receives around 1,500,000 hits a day. The first image to gain popularity was that of a British short hair cat asking ‘I can has cheezburger?’ Millions of Lolcats are now created on the blog and can be created by users. The silly, pointless humor of lolcats has allowed it to become a popular hobby for many people.




Week 11:  Medosch argues that: “piracy, despite being an entirely commercially motivated activity carried out in black or grey markets, fulfills culturally important functions” (Reader, page 318). Discuss ONE of these arguments while giving an example online.

 Piracy is the illegal copying, distribution or sale of copyrighted products or software and has become an increasing issue internationally and throughout the world wide web (Yar, 2008: 607).

Pirated content gives society access to hard-to-come-by cultural goods, allowing further information, knowledge and cultural traditions that could not occur without it. Piracy is mainly used for financial gain on the behalf of the pirate however Medosch (2008: 80) claims that research shows that without piracy less cultural goods and traditions could be accessed or exist today. Yar (2008: 619) reminds us that there is no consideration that the tightening of intellectual property regulations will decrease our ability to learn and expand our knowledge as well as threaten our ability for cultural creativity. Certain cultural traditions or processes may not be able to occur without the ability to breach copyright laws or use other’s content when necessary, an example being the remix music culture (Medosch, 2008: 92). Without piracy and copyright breaches we would not be in such an expanded, creative civilization as we are today.

A war between copyright and piracy, otherwise known as copyleft, has caused governments and institutions to create numerous strategies that attempt to undermine the Piracy movement and create the opinion of the immorality of piracy (Yar, 2008: 608). With financial harm being the main argument against piracy it has become increasingly obvious that monetary values are overriding any other value in relation to cultural goods. Yar (2008: 619) explains that the attempt to form the opinion that copyright is moral and its breach is the opposite is in reality just an attempt to hide the genuine capitalistic conception of private property. It should be noted that there is no acknowledgement of the fact that copyright as a concept can be contested and that there is a complete lack of consideration for any alternative view other than copyright (Yar, 2008: 619). The irrational legislation made in favour of the copyright industry harms many other human interests including education, innovation and creativity (Medosch, 2008: 86). Although Piracy does cause some financial harm, it does open up avenues for many other cultural areas.


Piratbyran is an organisation made for the support of piracy. They reflect over controversies such as copying, information infrastructure and digital culture (PiratByran, 2007: 1). PiratByran supports websites such as The Pirate Bay who claim to be ‘the worlds largest distributer of culture and media of all kinds’ (Neij, n.d). PiratByran is involved in numerous activities, campaigns and research studies. When Norway’s record industry began an anti-piracy campaigh called ‘Piracy kills music’ Piratbyran created a counter-campaign called ‘Piracy frees music’ which was promoted on The Pirate bay (PiratByran, 2007: 3).

Industries who claim piracy will destroy culture have forgotten that often culture is produced with or without financial benefit (Medosch, 2008:  86). Culture will always exist because it serves a need for not only the recipient but for the producer of the content (Medosch, 2008: 92). It fulfils wants, needs and desires (Medosch, 2008: 93). Instead of continuous disagreement, a new model needs to be made that caters both for copyrighted produce and the free flow of information, but until the recognition of piracy as a cultural resource occurs no model will be made (Medosch, 2008: 87)



Medosch, A. (2008). ‘Paid in Full: Copyright, Piracy and the Real Currency of Cultural Porduction’ pp 73-97 in Deptforth. TV Diaries II: Pirate Strategies. London: Deptforth.

Neij, F (n.d) ‘The Speech by Fredrik Neij, The Pirate Bay,’ on PiratByran in English viewed 1st June 2011, http://piratbyran-in-eng.blogspot.com/

Piratbyran (2007). ‘The Bureau of  Piracy Activities 2007’ viewed 2nd June 2011, http://piratbyran.org/PBverksamhet2007/PB%20activities%202007%20%28text%20only%29.pdf

Yar, M. (2008). ‘The rhetorics and myths of anti-piracy campaigns: crimialization, moral pedagogy and capitalist property relations in the classroom’, New Media Society, 10: 605-623.



Week 9:A) Burgess and Green argue that: ordinary people who become celebrities through their own creative efforts “remain within the system of celebrity native to, and controlled by, the mass media” (Reader, page 269). Discuss ONE of these arguments giving an example of a YouTube video (embed it into post). Specify chosen argument in your answer.

In recent times technologies have expanded to the extent that it is believed that we are reaching mass democratization; unfortunately this is a myth and we as people are controlled by the media much more than we are aware (Burgess & Green, 2009: 20). The increasing popularity of YouTube has lead people to believe that you can create your own independent success and celebrity through posting videos on the website. Despite developing your own stardom, the media will always be the underlying power behind whether you are a success or not and the extent to which you become a celebrity (Burgess & Green, 2009: 23).

Burgess and Green (2009: 23) have established the term ‘demoticization’ instead of the myth of ‘democratization’ to describe the process of the media representing ordinary people as celebrities. Graeme Turner (2006: 153) coined the term ‘demotic turn’ as a process of the increased visibility of an ordinary person as they turn themselves into media content. The mass media have developed a special interest in their celebrity representations of ordinary people through reality television, YouTube and DIY websites (Turner, 2006: 154).

 YouTube has produced numerous celebrities through their own creative efforts, however they remain controlled by the mass media at all times, with or without entry into media outlets. Some researchers claim that an ordinary citizen will only become a celebrity when they gain access to mass media meaning a YouTube star is not a celebrity until they are welcomed into the media world outside YouTube (Couldry, 2003; as cited in Burgess & Green, 2009: 22). Other researchers claim that YouTube has an independent version of celebrity that is different to that of the mass media (Burgess & Green, 2009: 24). Unfortunatley despite being independent, these celebrities belong in a world that is no more democratic than the mass media and are still subsequently part of the mass media’s central ploy for the ordinary person as a popular form of media content.  The media use this idea of ordinary as celebrity in order to create extensive diversity in entertainment and information that seems inexhaustible and therefore extremely profitable (Turner, 2006: 158).

With people’s attention drawn towards the ordinary citizen via mass media’s promotion of ‘ordinary’ through reality television and such, Kevin Wu was lucky enough to gain such a wide audience that he became a celebrity through his own content, first through YouTube alone and then through the mass media. Wu, owns the YouTube channel ‘KevJumba’ which has 168,833,464 views and 1,601,175 subscribers (YouTube, 2011). Wu’s videos are comedy based relations on things that he finds interesting, irritating or weird in his life. His popularity has lead him to have another YouTube channel ‘Jumbafund’ where his earnings from videos uploaded are donated to charity (KevJumba, n.d). Wu has now gained such popularity that he has entered mass media through starring in an online series for HBO, being a spokesperson, being sponsored and starring in the television show, ‘The Amazing Race’ (KevJumba, n.d).

Despite YouTube celebrities creating their own popularity, from the beginning they were controlled by and lived in the system of celebrity that was created by the mass media.


Burgess, J., & Green, J. (2009). ‘YouTube and The Mainstream Meda’, pp 15-37 in YouTube: Online and Participatory Culture, Cambrdige: Polity Press

KevJumba (n.d). About Kevjumba, viewed 28th May 2011, http://www.kevjumba.com/about/

Turner, G. (2006). ‘The mass production of celebrity: ‘celetoids’, reality TV and the ‘demotic turn,’ International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9 (2): 153-165

YouTube. (2011). KevJumba, viewed 28th May 2011, http://www.youtube.com/user/kevjumba


The term ‘internet trolling’ comes from the style of fishing where bait is trailed through a likely spot hoping for a bite. An internet troll is a person that posts comments or messages that intend to upset, disrupt or insult. Trolls have become a very annoying part of Web 2.0 and can often stem beyond a nuisance to being a dangerous person or stalker.

Trolls can be found in forums that have less moderation, social networking websites and blogs that allow comments. Trolls love opinion sites and controversial areas of knowledge.

Why do people Troll? It is possible that they are purely lonely people who want to live their lives through others by putting down people they are jealous of. Trolling may give the person a sense of power or it may give them a way to be recognized if no other method works. Often trolls don’t continue an argument once they’ve begun it.

It is obvious to say that a Troll requires a specific amount of insecurity to justify the effort to cause chaos and unhappiness.